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New Delhi (India), March 29: In our daily lives, there are many factors that contribute towards unhealthy lifestyle and stressful days. They may lead you to the early risk of having heart attack. However, prevention of heart failure or heart attack can help you lead a long life. Here are some top cardiologists sharing their experiences and knowledge in suggestions on how you can predict the heart attack and prevent it from occurring.

Dr.  Manoj Bansal, MBBS, MD, DM Cardiology (Gold Medalist), FCSI, Lead Cardiologist, Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Indore & Secretary, Cardiological Society of India, Indore

Heart diseases, together with high blood pressure and diabetes mellitus, are lifestyle diseases. We need to change our lifestyle and follow 10 golden rules: – Say no to the 6 S: salt, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, sugar, saturated fats, and stress. Walk for at least 45 minutes daily. Eat a well-balanced diet that includes fresh fruits, vegetables, beans, nuts, lentils, whole grains, and pulses. Remember to exercise daily. Do yoga and pranayama. Maintain a healthy weight. Get good-quality sleep. Get regular health screenings done, especially for blood sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels. Manage stress and drink a lot of water.

Healthy habits have to be started early. Families with a history of heart disease need to be very careful.

Dr. G V P Rao, MBBS, DNB (Med), FICC(Card), PhD(Card), DSc (Card), MCSI, MACC, PhD ( Heart Failure), Sr. Consultant Cardiologist & Philanthropist, Specialist in Interventional Heart  Failure, & Rehabilitation, Founder & CEO – Hridhayam Heart Clinic & Medi Heart Care Foundation, Nashik, Maharashtra

Heart attacks are one of the major causes of death worldwide, irrespective of age and gender. It is always better to know how to predict heart attacks for every individual and these are the few simple predictors for Heart attacks are characterized by sudden, profuse sweating associated with nausea and vomiting. Pain in the arms and chest are the most common indicators. Diseases like high blood pressure, diabetes, tobacco use, excessive body fat, and the size of the waist measurement play an important role. High LDL cholesterol (Bad cholesterol) or very Low HDL cholesterol (Good cholesterol) are the best predictors of the risk of heart attack. Some of the major A-typical predictors are shortness of breath with exertion and better with rest, sudden throat pain, back chest pain, right hand radiating pain, A blood test for high-sensitivity Troponin T indicates damage to the heart muscle.

Dr. Lal Daga, MBBS, DNB (Med.), DNB (Card) MNAMS, FESC (International), FEAC, Advanced Cardiology Training Programme (Seoul), Senior Consultant Interventional Cardiologist, Apollo Hospital, Ahmedabad

Early predictor of heart diseases and the most common symptoms include chest pain or discomfort, which can be excruciating or cause choking sensations. It can be breathlessness, sweating, palpitations, or early fatigue. 10% of patients can have upper abdominal discomfort or a burning sensation in the low chest as well. If these symptoms or signs are caught at a young age, many lives can be saved with earlier cardiac workup. These symptoms should work as an alarm to seek cardiologist assistance.

The patient with particularly in a high-risk group like diabetes, hypertension, family disease, kidney disease, or smokers, one should be highly cautious.

Some patients, e.g., the elderly, diabetics, cancer patients, and those with chronic diseases, may have mild or silent symptoms. These all patients can be benefited by early cardiac risk evaluation at onset by LpA,HsCRP, a lipid profile, homocysteine, and cardiac markers with an ECG, 2D ECHO, TMT, AND ANGIOGRAPHY. As patient-tailored management by a cardiologist. The earlier you start, the better your chances are of avoiding complications.

Dr. S. S. Murthy, MBBS, DNB, MNAMS, Director & HOD – Ayushman Hospital, Dwarka, New Delhi

Heart disease is still the leading cause of death worldwide. Typical symptoms like tightness in the chest are more obvious. Identifying the signs of a heart attack and seeking early medical help can make a lot of difference. Here are some symptoms to look out for: Heaviness in the center of the chest, which can radiate to the left arm or to both arms, Excessive sweating, shortness of breath, or ghabrahat, or palpitations, can indicate complications of a heart attack, which can be dangerous to life. Pain in the upper half of the body, a choking sensation in the throat, or dizziness or lightheadedness may be a sign of an impending heart attack.

It may also occur due to other conditions like cervical spondylosis, ear problems, dehydration,low BP, or a gastric problem. If it doesn’t subside, medical help with an ECG should be sought immediately as it may indicate an impending heart attack.

Dr. Puneet K Verma, Interventional Cardiologist & Structural Heart Specialist, ACE HEART AND VASCULAR INSTITUTE, Mohali, Punjab

The common risk factors are absent in the majority of these patients, while sedentary lifestyles, substance abuse, faulty diets, and abnormal body fat distribution abound in them. Atypical symptoms like dizziness, lightheadedness, breathlessness, and fatigue can be some of the leading symptoms that may precede a heart attack. Early on, getting a blood sample tested for high-sensitivity troponin protein may help us diagnose and prevent a major heart attack. Recently, doctors have been out to validate the utility of troponin watches. Such a watch worn around the wrist can pick up the earliest trace of troponin in the bloodstream well before detection by conventional blood tests.
Premature heart attacks can also occur in those with elevated blood levels of lipoprotein (a), high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP), and homocysteine. A simple CT scan assessment of the coronary arteries, either by the calcium score or by CT angiography, can also help us pick up the blockages early on and can help in the prediction and prevention of heart attacks.

Dr. Upendra Bhalerao, MS, MCh, DNB FIACS   Consultant Cardiothoracic and Transplant Surgeon Jaslok hospital and Research centre, Mumbai

Coronary artery disease in the Indian population occurs at a much younger age than its prevalent age in the western world. Presentation in younger individuals can be chest pain, acute myocardial infarction, or severe cardiovascular collapse leading to sudden death. With awareness, lifestyle modification, and adequate care, coronary artery disease is preventable, predictable, and curable. Some major risk factors that lead to heart attacks include smoking, unhealthy food, stress, diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, cholesterol, and a lack of physical activity.

Do proper health check-ups—at least once a year. Consume a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, whole grains, high-fiber foods, lean meats, and fat-free or low-fat dairy products. Minimize beverages and foods with added sugars. Regular exercise helps to lower blood pressure and combat other cardiovascular disease risk factors. Mindful meditation and deep breathing can help manage stress.

Dr. Abhinit Gupta, MD, DM (AIIMS, Delhi) Gold Medalist, FIACM, FSCAI Senior Consultant Interventional Cardiologist, Regency Health, Kanpur

A heart attack is a medical emergency when a blood clot blocks blood flow to the heart. Symptoms include tightness or pain in the chest, neck, back, or arms, as well as fatigue, an abnormal heartbeat, and anxiety. Women are more likely to have atypical symptoms than men. A heart attack is best suspected on clinical grounds in the presence of typical symptoms against the background of risk factors for CAD. Usually, serial ECGs and cardiac enzymes on blood samples, known as troponin tests, are sufficient in most cases to diagnose a heart attack.

Dr. Abhinit Gupta said that if you can treat someone much earlier, before they have symptoms, you will be far more effective in preventing cardiac events. Treatment ranges from lifestyle changes and cardiac rehabilitation to medication, stents, and bypass surgery.

Dr. Salve Jaysing, MD Med. (Mumbai) Director & Physician, Cardiologist, Dietologist, Mumbai

The Heart Attack is a leading cause of deaths all over the world.  It’s very common in the population who has modifiable RISK Factors such as smoking, diabetes, hypertension high cholesterol, obesity and a sedentary life style.  HEART ATTACK ARE CAUSE BY THE OCCULUSION OF CORONARY ARTERIES because of sudden rupture of inner layers of arteries and formation of blood clot within it. Modifiable risk factors account for 90% heart attack in men and 94% in females.

Patients with pain in the center of chest with profuse sweating must rush to the doctor or hospital for an urgent ECG and if require, cardiac ENYMES investigation. After the with confirmation of diagnosis patient must chew and consume 300 mg of aspirin and rush to an ICCU Hospital Preferably with CATH LAB without any exertion where he either goes directly for coronary angiography and primary angioplasty within n9 minutes of chest pain or second option is to dissolve the clot by THROMBOLYTIC drugs.

Dr. Mohit M Bhagwati, DrNB Cardiology, Interventional Cardiologist and Incharge – Acute Cardiac Care, Holy Family Hospital, New Delhi

While predicting a heart attack may not be foolproof, taking proactive steps to reduce risk factors and monitor one’s health can greatly improve the chances of preventing a heart attack. There are several factors that can increase the risk of a heart attack, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, diabetes, obesity and a family history of heart disease. To predict the likelihood of a heart attack, we often use a combination of investigations. These may include an electrocardiogram (ECG), a stress test (Treadmill Test or Stress Echocardiogram), and few blood tests. Additionally, there are several warning signs that may indicate a heart attack is imminent like chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, nausea, lightheadedness, and cold sweats. If you or someone you know experiences any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention immediately.

Dr. Kshitij R. Dadhe, MBBS, MD General Medicine, D.M. Cardiology (Gold Medalist), Consultant & Interventional Cardiologist – Asha Hospital, Nagpur

Cardiovascular disease accounts for approximately one-third of all deaths worldwide. Prevention of CVD requires timely identification of people at increased risk. Several prediction models have been developed, like QRISK, ASCVD Risk Score, etc., which calculate an individual’s 10-year risk of having a heart attack, stroke, or heart failure. They consider various modifiable risk factors like high BP, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes mellitus, obesity, physical inactivity (and other factors like stress, excess alcohol, lack of sleep, and a lack of a balanced diet) and non-modifiable risk factors like old age, male gender, and family history of premature CAD, race, postmenopausal status, and preeclampsia.

Those who are at increased risk should aggressively target control of modifiable risk factors through effective dietary, lifestyle, or drug interventions. Various AI tools are under development to further refine risk predictions.

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